11 - Guthrie test is for diagnosis of PKU - a bacterial assay for phenylalanine.
12 - Ghon lesion is primary area of tuberculosis infection.
13 - Paneth cells is in small intestine crypts - cells with apically oriented bright eosinophilic granules and which appear to play a role in the mucosal immune system.
14 - Stellwag’s sign is incomplete and infrequent blinking in Graves’s disease.
15 - Virchow’s node is supraclavicular adenopathy associated with a malignancy - often on left side - associated with stomach cancer among other neoplasms but also GI and pelvic malignancies in general. First described by Virchow in 1848 - more cases added by Troisier in 1886; referred to as Troisier’s node in France.
16 - Lynch's syndrome I and II
Henry T. Lynch
Lynch syndrome I:
Familial predisposition to colorectal cancer with right-sided predominance. Predominantly early-onset proximal colon carcinomas.
Lynch syndrome II:
Familial predisposition for other primary cancers in addition to the predisposition for colon cancer; site is often female reproductive organs. Predominantly early onset proximal colon carcinoma associated with other extracolonic adenocarcinomas, particularly endometrial carcinoma.
Both disorders are inherited as autosomal dominant traits.
First described 1913 by Alder Scott Warthin, 1867-1931.
Lynch syndrome II is cancer family syndrome - all features of Lynch I with early onset of carcinoma at other sites including endometrium - ovaries - and stomach - also upper tract TCC.
17 - Barraquer-Simons syndrome is acquired partial lipodystrophy; presents usually around 8-10 - preceded generally by an acute viral infection; spares legs and hips; 1/3 of patients develop membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
18 - McLeod phenotype is occurs from the absence of the Kx red blood cell antigen; characterized by acanthocytes; compensated hemolytic anemia; decreased Kell system antigens; increased CKMM isoenzymes; and progressive neurologic changes including areflexia - choreiform movements - dysarthria - wasting of muscles - and cardiomyopathy; may be associated with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.
19 - Monod’s sign is in aspergillomas - radiolucent crescent seen around solitary 3-5 cm lesion on chest X-ray.
20 - TRALI syndrome is Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury; transfusion reaction occurring within 6 hours after transfusion of blood product - characterized by pulmonary edema; due to anti-granulocyte antibodies in donor’s plasma causing pulmonary sequestration of recipient leukocytes in susceptible patient.